on all orders above $300.00

FREE Pills!


for free with every order



Less than in your
local pharmacy

Search by letter:


Enter coupon: (if you have one)

Baktar (Bactrim)

Baktar is a medication of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim antibiotics group. Baktar is used to treat: ear infections, urinary tract infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Baktar fights against bacteria in your body. Baktar is taken to fight against ear infections, urinary tract infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Baktar works by killing or slowing the growth of sensitive bacteria. Baktar can't be given to children younger than 2 months old.

Other names for this medication:
Bactrim, Actrim, Astrim, Bacin, Bacta, Bactelan, Bacterol, Bacticel, Bactiver, Bactoprim, Bactricid, Bactrimel, Bactron, Bactropin, Baktar, Bakton, Balkatrin, Berlocid, Betam, Bioprim, Biotrim, Biseptol, Bitrim, Ciplin, Cotrim, Cotrimoxazol, Cotrimstada, Cozole, Deprim, Dhatrin, Diseptyl, Ditrim, Doctrim, Drylin, Ectaprim, Eusaprim, Fisat, Gantrisin, Globaxol, Kepinol, Lagatrim, Lapikot, Letus, Licoprima, Linaris, Megaset, Meprim, Methoxasol, Metrim, Neoset, Nopil, Novotrim, Organosol, Pehatrim, Primadex, Primazol, Primazole, Primotren, Purbac, Resprim, Sanprima, Sepmax, Septra, Septran, Septrin, Sinersul, Soltrim, Spectrem, Suftrex, Sulfa, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfametoxazol, Sulfatrim, Sulotrim, Sulprim, Sumetrolim, Suprim, Sutrim, Tagremin, Theraprim, Tmps, Trifen, Trimesulf, Trimesulfin, Trimexazol, Trimezol, Trimol, Trimoxsul, Trisul, Trizole, Urisept, Vanadyl, Wiatrim, Xepaprim,

Similar Products:
Indom, Topzole, Androfin, Difloxin, Ogasto, Famtrex, Alfoxil, Frilans, Prosogan, Araten, Prosteride, Lexemin, Mecon, Caverta, Myodura, Epitomax, Levunid, Sildenafila, Aklovir, Aciphex, Mittoval, Irbesartan, Pacerone, Atorvastatina, Metrolyl, Ciloxan, Tromic, Pharmapress, Pulna, Cleron, Velafax, Modafinil, Zefu, Damadol, Valturna, Exten, Flutamida, Perindo, Nexpro, Cefirax, Imadrax, Serpafar, Larb, Tenox,

This medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It is also used to treat a certain type of pneumonia (pneumocystis pneumonia) in patients with a weakened immune system. This medication is a combination of 2 antibiotics: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria and the pneumocystis fungus.

baktar esbl treatment

The numerical results of the model compare well with experimental data. There was no obvious difference in EGF and EGF-R expression in glomeruli derived from normal or diseased state. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Clustering time-course gene expression data (gene trajectories) is an important step towards solving the complex problem of gene regulatory network modeling and discovery as it significantly reduces the dimensionality of the gene space required for analysis.

zirah baktar tablet

All of the reviews were expected to focus on research that was relevant to the performance of the elite athlete and the specific brief of the Open Section Review was to concentrate on interdisciplinary research. It is concluded that the steroid producing cells of the testis, the Leydig cells, originate or are heavily influenced by mesonephros during early testicular organogenesis. Comparison of responses by physicians and a random sample of their patients to a 12-item questionnaire about physical and social function. This polymorphism was not associated with the HBV infection status in Moroccan patients. Up-regulation of mRNA was associated with enhanced Ang-2 protein synthesis and secretion as assayed by immunoblot.

zirah baktar drug

An R package for Windows and source code of the MATLAB and R routines are available as Supplementary Files. Large vacuoles were more numerous in the synovial cells at either end of the fat pad, and these cells contained less endoplasmic reticulum than those in the central region. Eleven patients responded to the treatment in I to 2 months time.

baktar esbl infection

The high DENV genome copies in platelets correlated directly with the elevated platelet activation along with increased binding of complement factor C3 and IgG on their surface at day 4. The currently adopted power-law shear-induced haemolysis prediction model lacks sensitivity with respect to the cumulative effect of previously applied stress magnitudes. This case is similar to those of patients with progressive essential iris atrophy and keratoconus described by Cavanagh. Occasional activated collagen-producing fibroblasts were seen, suggesting in these few cases a possible regenerative response of the collagenous tissue, maybe induced by an impingement phenomenon, as such cells are not normally seen in resting connective tissue.

baktar combination tablets

A 3 h exposure time, in both the absence and presence of metabolic activation, was used for the in vitro Comet assay. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias.

zirah baktar drug

cotyledons and petals) also display occasional defects in cell wall formation and exhibit alterations in callose deposition, indicating that pmcd1 has a general defect in cell plate formation, most probably caused by alterations in callose biosynthesis. The sensitivity and reliability of the assay were most affected by methods of urine collection, sample preparation, and storage.

zirah baktar medicine

The recent advent of whole genome analysis techniques shed new light on specific variants at the origin of this short stature. Implementation of Routine Postpartum Depression Screening and Care Initiation Across a Multispecialty Health Care Organization: An 18-Month Retrospective Analysis.

baktar medicine cabinets

This review summarizes their physiopathology, and the current guidelines regarding their diagnosis and treatment. The antitumor activity of lidocaine in hepatocellular carcinoma with or without cisplatin was investigated with in vitro experiments and also with animal experiments.

baktar shikan cost

bcl-2 inhibits multiple forms of apoptosis but not negative selection in thymocytes. This system focuses on fractures involving the medial and lateral plateau but does not comment on fractures that involve the posterior aspect of the tibial plateau. Our findings suggest that ZIN is an inhibitor of TNF- and IL1-induced NF-kappa B activation pathways.

zirah baktar drug

A chemically induced acute model of myocardial damage in intact calves. In females, dihydrotestosterone masculinized soma size in nXIIts and testosterone slightly increased syrinx weight. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome is a potentially fatal drug reaction that must be recognized quickly.

baktar medicine

These reference doses will form the basis of the revised Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labeling (VITAL) 2.0 thresholds now recommended in Australia. Primary care may play a role in negotiating a shared decision that is based on individual circumstances.

baktar medicine bow

Intein-mediated, in vitro and in vivo protein modifications with small molecules. To determine the long term effects of relaxation therapy on 24 hour ambulatory intra-arterial blood pressure in patients with mild untreated and uncomplicated hypertension. During a postoperative follow-up period ranging from 23 months to 7 years, no further neurological deterioration was observed in the 12 patients and magnetic resonance imaging studies showed no adhesion of the spinal cord to the operative site.

baktar drug

Further studies are required to confirm whether improving the hip flexion range of motion can reduce excessive lumbar flexion in patients with LBP accompanying limited hip flexion. Immunologic and toxicologic study of disaccharide tripeptide glycerol dipalmitoyl: a new lipophilic immunomodulator. At each knee position, real time kinematic and axial MRF image was used to focus on the sagittal plane, followed by an axial image focused through the middle of the patella. An antiarrhythmic agent of the same class should not be used in treating an arrhythmia resulting from an overdose. We treated the sixteen affected patients with 5 mg/kg of carbamazepine once per day until the diarrhea had stopped.

shoaib baktar drug

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of renal pathergy. Active vitamin D and its analogs as drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis: advantages and problems. This is the first study to our knowledge that shows that Lp-PLA2 is associated with the risk of dementia independent of cardiovascular and inflammatory factors and provides evidence for a potential role of Lp-PLA2 in identifying subjects at risk for dementia.

zirah baktar medicine

In female patients, worsening of migraine symptoms at menarche was significantly correlated with T320A polymorphism. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the only known B cell-specific protein required for inducing CSR and SHM in mammals. Pull-off stress was measured to evaluate the adhesion capability of dead river loach to substrates with varying surface roughness and compared with commercial suction cups.

zirah baktar antibiotic

Histogenesis of the intimal thickening in atherosclerosis and of hyperplastic processes in connective tissue. Binding to DNA is generally believed to be essential for its activity.

bactrim alcohol consumption

  • para que sirve la bactrim forte drug
  • bactrim for bladder infection dosage
  • over the counter version of bactrim ds
  • baktar combination tablets
  • baktar medicine man
  • staph epidermidis treatment bactrim for sinus
  • baktar tablet
  • baktar combination tablets metformin
  • baktar enterococcus infection
  • baktar medicine hat
  • wikipedia bactrim ds tablets
  • rash on face while taking amoxicillin and bactrim
  • bactrim jarabe 200 40 mg dosis de tylenol
  • melioidosis treatment bactrim dose
  • bactrim ds for uti prophylaxis
  • baktar esbl uti
  • ursacol 150 mg posologia bactrim
  • modafinil and alcohol interactions with bactrim
  • bactrim dose mrsa skin infection
  • baktar side effects
  • drug interactions with coumadin and bactrim
  • shoaib baktar antibiotic
  • baktar esbl infection
  • bactrim ds dosage bid
  • baktar shikan vs nag
  • e coli uti bactrim breastfeeding
  • baktar medicine wheel
  • baktar shikan vs nagels
  • bactrim price at walmart
  • baktar medicine bow
  • clomid and alcohol interactions with bactrim
  • bactrim alcohol consumption
  • baktar shikan meaning of names
  • mrsa antibiotics bactrim
  • bactrim acne treatment
  • bactrim pregnancy uti cramps
  • baktar tablets
  • bisphosphonate renal dosing bactrim
  • baktar medicine shoppe
  • baktar medicine cabinets
  • bactrim antibiotic used for stds
  • bactrim package insert dailymed
  • baktar antibiotic
  • sulfa bactrim ds for acne
  • bactrim antibiotic for tooth infection
  • shoaib baktar drug
  • baktar tablets 400mg
  • bactrim pediatric dosing mg/kg/day
  • lomotil renal dosing for bactrim
  • deltacortene da 25 mg posologia bactrim
  • baktar medicine ball
  • baktar shikan weapon system names
  • ambisome dosing information for bactrim
  • baktar medicine park
  • baktar shikan meaning of name
  • baktar medicine
  • generico do bactrim
  • bactrim 200 40 per 5 ml
  • zirah baktar medicine
  • uptodate uti bactrim
  • baktar drug
  • baktar medicine cabinet
  • can you take bactrim during pregnancy
  • baktar shikan missile of pakistan vs bangladesh
  • baktar medicine dictionary
  • septra bactrim acne review
  • bactrim iv for cellulitis
  • bactrim injection administration guidelines
  • shoaib baktar medicine
  • baktar enterococcus uti
  • bactrim cost walmart
  • bactrim dosage for uti prophylaxis ciprofloxacin
  • bactrim for mrsa pneumonia prognosis
  • zirah baktar tablets
  • zirah baktar antibiotic
  • bactrim ointment 15g
  • baktar shikan cost
  • zirah baktar tablet
  • bactrim forte
  • malarone renal dosing bactrim
  • shoaib baktar tablet
  • bactrim antibiotic side effects nausea
  • drug induced hepatitis bactrim for acne
  • baktar shikan price
  • zirah baktar drug
  • baktar enterococcus treatment
  • baktar esbl treatment
  • over the counter version of bactrim antibiotic uses
  • bactrim dose peds uti
  • bactrim forte jarabe
  • shoaib baktar tablets
  • bactrim ds dose cellulitis
  • meropenem renal dosing bactrim

baktar esbl treatment

A simple in vitro model for investigating epithelial/mesenchymal interactions: keratinocyte inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and fibronectin synthesis. Disease progression in HER2-positive breast cancer is often due to resistance to or a lack of efficacy of trastuzumab-based anti-HER2 therapy. Biochemical characteristics of the rat brain after low protein diet.

ambisome dosing information for bactrim

During follow-up, a peripheral hyperintense rim appeared on precontrast T1-weighted images, a feature not previously described. To recognize the characteristic imaging signs of orbital varix in ultrasound examination is valuable for the choice of treatment. Ghost- and guest-authored pharmaceutical industry-sponsored studies: abuse of academic integrity, the peer review system, and public trust. The purpose of this investigation was to determine: a) the potential benefit of introducing an ergonomic safety initiative, which slows the speed of lifting, and b) the need to use more complex biomechanical models in work assessments. However, the gIII- mutant was functionally defective, showing impaired attachment to permissive cells, a delay in virus replication, and reduced extracellular virus production.

baktar medicine ball

Enhanced postischemic dysfunction selective to subendocardium in conscious dogs with LV hypertrophy. By combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional LC with tandem mass spectrometry, 101 proteins were identified from purified ZG membranes including 28 known ZG proteins and 73 previously unknown proteins, including SNAP29, Rab27B, Rab11A, Rab6, Rap1, and myosin Vc. The metastases of an occult bronchial carcinoma in a transplanted kidney. arabica cells by differentially affecting components of the phospholipid cascade. The mode of action of the different PCC dimensions on wellbeing varies.

baktar tablets 400mg

Because sensation is delayed, real-time movement control requires not just sensing, but also predicting limb position, a function hypothesized for the cerebellum. To estimate costs associated with the most significant and targetable HAIs.

bactrim ds dose cellulitis

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces in vitro angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. Finally, a general overview of outcome research is provided, focusing on the underlying, changing attitudes toward the adolescent phase of development. Only a slight increase in reticulin fibers in the alveolar walls in animals of the 0.5 and 2.5mg/m(3) concentration group was noted.

over the counter version of bactrim ds

Data were evaluated by Sensory Decision Theory (SDT) procedures. Novel tax-based and subscription prepayment programs indemnify patients against the cost of EMS treatment and transport. Motivations for providing a secure base: links with attachment orientation and secure base support behavior. Knowledge of the fundamental principles upon which these systems are based may aid the clinician to choose an appropriate treatment for patients.

bactrim dosage for uti prophylaxis ciprofloxacin

Less time is being spent with patients because more time must be spent hassling with business matters and dealing with third-party payors. The (negative) findings of this investigation add to the dissonance among results of studies investigating the possible value of shear-wave elastography as a diagnostic tool to identify malignant neoplasia.

bactrim forte jarabe

Genomes of microbes inhabiting the body offer clues to human health and disease. Selection and marker switching strategies render the whole process reliable, rapid and very effective. Neural differences between intrinsic reasons for doing versus extrinsic reasons for doing: an fMRI study.

baktar shikan weapon system names

This finding suggests that goldfish neuronotrophic factor(s) are active on retinal ganglia cells. When one model is not enough: combining epistemic tools in systems biology. Analysis of various factors affecting vibration-induced white finger. The article contributes a detailed overview of the current status of pharmacogenomics in BD and offers a perspective on the challenges that can hinder its transition to personalized healthcare. The compostable portion of MSW was simulated using three principal biodegradable components, namely mixed paper wastes, yard wastes and food wastes.

bactrim cost walmart

Role of PGF2alpha and oxytocin in parturition in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Light microscopy showed a neointima formation, discontinuity of the media layer and a rich infiltrate. Four cases of Salmonella osteomyelitis in children with sickle cell haemoglobinopathy were seen at a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Propafenone, like other cardioactive drugs (metoprolol, propranolol, encainide) is submitted to oxidative metabolism, evaluable by assessment of debrisoquine oxidative capacity.

baktar tablets

Because of increasing evidence suggesting a role of cell-mediated immunity in disease resistance against many poultry disease, investigation of immune systems involved in cell-mediated immunity is crucial for the development of immunological control strategies. Although this therapy improved QOL of the patients significantly, there was little benefit for the growth disturbance.

baktar shikan weapon system names

Diving medicine is one of the branches of military medicine, and plays an important role in naval development. Cytohesin-1, in addition to its role in cell adhesion, is a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein activator of ARF GTPases.

bactrim cost walmart

Occupational groups with possible exposure to organic solvents and other chemicals such as chemical process workers, mechanics, iron and metalware workers, and launderers and dry cleaners may entail true risk for leukemia. It is clear that implantable defibrillators should be considered for patients with heart failure who have been resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia. Ergonomic analysis of muscle activity in the forearm and back muscles during laparoscopic surgery: influence of previous experience and performed task. Patterns and mechanisms of spread of squamous carcinomas of the oral cavity.

zirah baktar medicine

In six normal subjects we investigated the effects of oral phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) on the concentrations of plasma choline, erythrocyte choline, and choline-containing lipids. Gene-modified MSC expressing a gene of therapeutic potential can moderate growth of haematological malignancies. We therefore conclude that CLCA4 might be functional during human spermatogenesis after meiosis, most likely as a modifier of CFTR gene expression.

baktar shikan vs nag

In addition to standard immunological parameters, the study was made of serum levels of anticardiomyosine-antiCM (protabzymes) and anti-DNA (DNA-abzymes) of AAB. As CGRP might cause symptoms in renal dysfunction, this study was performed to determine the clearance of CGRP in humans and animals with altered renal function. Sensitivity of the system was in the range of 3 to 30 fg of DNA, or 20 to 100 bacterial cells. Over the 3 months before his admission, the swelling had become persistent and extended 10 cm proximal to the patella on the anterior aspect of the thigh. Symposium: the pediatric concern of ophthalmology and otolaryngology.

bactrim package insert dailymed

To assess the role of BopC (a type III secreted effector protein) in the pathogenesis of B. Brain natriuretic peptide on admission as a biological marker of long-term mortality in ischemic stroke survivors. While the pace of commissioning of new charged particle radiation therapy facilities is accelerating worldwide, biological data pertaining to chordomas, theoretically and clinically optimally suited targets for particle radiotherapy, are still lacking.

baktar shikan price

The presented global tendencies give the frame for the necessary alteration of the Hungarian health care system. Effects on association with accessory proteins and signal transduction. Glycemic control appears to have more influence over nutritional status on long-term outcomes after TP. This type of polysyndactyly should suggest the diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome, which is inherited on a recessive autosomal basis.

baktar medicine ball

We have evaluated two algorithms for calculation of the cortical fraction. Certifying the interruption of Chagas disease transmission by native vectors: cui bono? Fetal circulatory system in growth-retarded fetus with late decelerations and oligohydramnios.

shoaib baktar tablets

Prenatal alcohol exposure and miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. One molecule of TFIIIA binds per 5 S RNA gene, and this bimolecular complex dissociates with first order kinetics, having a half-life of 15.6 min. Also, electric field deflection of lightest and densest fractions of erythrocytes did not differ.

shoaib baktar drug

The results supported more weakly the association of smoking with the perception of stress induced by role ambiguity, by nurse-doctor conflict, and by conflict between nurses. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is currently the gold standard for respiratory support for moderate to severe acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB).

baktar shikan vs nag

This article describes updated methods that we use with 3D imaging software to assess rhinoplasty results at our institution. EOM satellite cells did not require a prolonged activation period prior to onset of cell division and differentiation in vitro. There was a significantly greater decrease in heart rate on atenolol than on rilmenidine. This review paper included the recent progress made in heat pump assisted drying, its principle, mechanism and efficiency, type and its application for drying of agricultural produce. Measurements of ultrasonic pulse arrival time differences produced by abdominal wall specimens.

baktar combination tablets

The correct and incorrect answers then were briefly discussed after the audience responses, and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. CEACAM1, an adhesion molecule of human granulocytes, is fucosylated by fucosyltransferase IX and interacts with DC-SIGN of dendritic cells via Lewis x residues. This is a result of earlier diagnosis and highly effective multidrug treatment (MDT) of leprosy, combined with timely treatment of secondary nerve damage by steroids. The Health Utilities Index is a generic multiattribute preference-based system for assessing health-related quality of life, devised by Torrance et al.

 Show Hide 
baktar shikan weapon system names 2015-10-29

A possible interaction change between teva methacin gout diet the 9-methyl group of the chromophore and its neighboring protein during the lumi-meta I transition will be discussed. Common variants in PCSK1 also have been associated with obesity in heterozygotes in several population-based studies. Stimulation of granulopoiesis by transforming growth factor beta: synergy with granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor.

shoaib baktar tablet 2010-01-17

If left ic nortriptyline hcl 25 mg cap untreated, the disease progresses through four stages, with the potential to cause significant morbidity to any major organ of the body. Cloning of the p50 DNA binding subunit of NF-kappa B: homology to rel and dorsal. This investigation empirically establishes that these conflict adaptation indices represent robust, dependable measures. The survival probabilities at years 1 and 5 were calculated by life table analysis. Effect of experimental errors in evaluation of stability data obtained.

bactrim jarabe 200 40 mg dosis de tylenol 2018-09-30

There were no consistent modifiable predictors of decline in functioning, but women reported less functional decline in the domains of employment and close friendships than men. The authors describe a thoracoscopic approach and technical details for diaphragmatic eventration repair side effects of taking antacids with gabapentin 300 in children. The current appeared reliably with a mild osmotic gradient and in the absence of intracellular ATP.

drug induced hepatitis bactrim for acne 2017-07-03

Brief exposure to small molecules allows induction of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into neural crest-like precursors. Both models should be useful in studying the pathogenic role of C. Comparison of cell nuclear DNA contents between intraepithelial and invasive components of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. alprazolam different brands of bread To further optimise its allocative efficiency, we designed a novel optimisation method and examined whether the optimal package of interventions changes when interaction and non-linear scale-up effects are incorporated into cost-effectiveness analysis. A parylene-H film with formyl groups was thermally deposited on a target plate and the receptor protein was covalently immobilized on the target plate.

baktar shikan meaning of names 2015-02-15

Concordance rates lc 38 95 mg clarithromycin were higher with gastroenterologists in this cohort. Feet insoles and knee osteoarthritis: evaluation of biomechanical and clinical effects from a literature review We next examine whether this principle might further shape the representation of signed syllables by nonsigners. Chemical, physiologic, or genetic manipulations are employed to elucidate critical pathways affected by increased glucose metabolism, and how abnormal gene expression disrupts neural tube closure.

baktar enterococcus infection 2018-07-28

The degree of complications in thoracoscopic surgery is comparable to open surgery, with benefits in morbidity of the approach and subsequent patient recovery. It was shown that the temperature behaviour of this system is determined by nonlinear resonances, which give rise to both the phenomenon of self-synchronization in the whole system piroxicam 20 mg feldene flash dosis or its part and to the phenomena of phase instability and coherence decay, depending on the store of oscillatory energy. In the reproduction assay, only the highest concentration (32 mg/L DOC of Fuchskuhle NOM, 38 mg/L DOC of HS 1500) resulted in a decrease in brood size, highlighting an overall intrinsic tolerance toward humic material.

baktar medicine shoppe 2012-09-25

Five distinct mechanisms have been proposed to explain the antiviral properties of ribavirin. In children, the specificity of this diagnostic tool is impaired by conductive hearing loss. Common mutations of ATP7B in Wilson disease patients from Hungary. GC-MS analysis revealed that primary metabolite profiling allowed us to classify the five cultivars into three independent groups and the grouping was also explained by eight major primary metabolites as biomarkers. Verticalization of the frontal p wave axis may be an early finding of worsening of COPD before occurrences abus ivera 7200 sale of other ECG changes of hypertrophy and enlargement of right heart chambers such as p pulmonale.

shoaib baktar tablet 2013-11-23

An unusual shape of the ERG in the both mutants was shown to result linatil 10 mg hinta from an additional component of the receptor potential, the spike, which has been never observed in the normal bee eye. Japanese version 4 has been improved to address the weakness in an attempt to become an instrument that is applicable across cultures. The fact that no QTL was observed in the region identified in the mapping study of North American ninespine sticklebacks suggests that an alternative QTL for pelvic reduction has emerged in this species within the past 1.6 million years after the split between Northern European and North American populations.